What is a Fiscal year (FY)?

The term “fiscal year” refers to a single-year period used by governments and businesses to utilize for financial reporting and budgeting. The fiscal year is often used for accounting reasons to create financial statements. Even though a fiscal calendar can begin with the date of Jan. 1 and close on December. 31st; however, not all fiscal year coincide with that calendar. For instance, many universities begin and finish their fiscal years following the school year.

fiscal year


  • Fiscal year refers to a 12-month period chosen by a business to publish its financial data.
  • External audits, financial reports and federal tax filings are based on the company’s fiscal year.
  • Some companies may opt to present their financial statements in a fiscal year that is not calendar-based depending on their business’s nature.
  • A fiscal year is essential to be used for accounting purposes as well as for creating annually financial reports. At UCI, the fiscal year starts at the beginning of July and ends with the 30th day of June. Because the fiscal year is a cross between two calendar years, the calendar year and the fiscal year do not always coincide. For instance, Fiscal Year 2022 runs from June 1, 2021 until June 30 2022. Each fiscal year is broken down into sections called “fiscal period.” Read more about how fiscal periods are run at UCI.

Fiscal Periods

There are fifteen fiscal periods in that General Ledger entries can be published. Twelve of them simply represent the twelve months of the year; however, three additional special periods are available such as beginning Balances (BB), C&G Beginning Balances (CB) and Period 13. The majority of fiscal months (with the exception of special times like BB and CB comprise five working days that follow after the month’s end. In these five days, certain (but not every) transactions can be posted to the closing time. For instance, the general error correction (GEC) may be prepared to be posted in the fiscal period of September as late as October

IRS requirements for fiscal Year

In the standard IRS, system is dependent on the calendar year. Therefore, those who file for the fiscal year must modify the deadlines to file certain forms and paying taxes. Although most taxpayers are required to submit their forms by the 15th day of April following the year they filed, fiscal year taxpayers have to file by the fifteenth day in April following the close in their financial period. 3 For example, a company running a budgetary year beginning in June and ending in May 31 must file its tax return before Sept. 15.

Within the United States, eligible businesses can choose to adopt the fiscal year to report their tax obligations simply by submitting their initial income tax return in the fiscal year. Any time, businesses can decide to change to the calendar year. However, any business that wants to transition between a year in a calendar into a fiscal year need permission by the IRS or satisfies one of the requirements that are outlined in Form 1128. Request to adopt, change or Retain the Tax Year.

Fiscal Year Vs. Fiscal Year and Assessment

The Balance Sheet and income statement of all companies around the globe are typically created for one year. The date the date this period begins varies from one country to the next.

In India the one-year period begins from 1 1st April until 31 day March. This time frame during which income is earned is referred to by the name of year of the Financial Financial Year. The tax returns for payment are filed, and the taxes for businesses are typically due in the year following the close in the Financial Year. The following year the income is analyzed for tax is referred to as “the assessment year.

If the financials were being prepared to cover the fiscal year that begins on 1 1 March 2013 to closes on 31 March 2014, the period would be known as Financial Year 2013-14. The income earned would then be taxed in the year following, and the period will be referred to as “assessment year” in the following years. The assessment Year 2014-15.

Instructions for filing your income tax returns

In simple words, Financial Year is the year that earnings are earned. The Assessment Year is the period where the payments are taxed and all the taxes paid and tax returns filed. The rules for income tax and slab rates in effect to the year of assessment 2014-15 will be identical to the rules applied to this year’s financial year and the following years.

Income Tax Slab Rate

The financial year is typically designated as F/Y, while the A/Y usually denotes the assessment year. Since this is before the year for assessment, the year of financials can also be referred to as the Previous Year for Income Tax purposes.