What is R-Squared?

The R-squared (R 2) is a statistic that measures the percentage of variance of the dependent variable caused by the independent variable that is part of an equation model. While correlation is the basis for determining the extent of the relationship between two variables, an independent and dependent and R-squared provides a way to determine how much the variation of one variable accounts for what happens to the other variable. If your ratio R 2. of the model is 0.50 and the model is a 50% of the variance observed could be caused by inputs from the model.

Key Take-Aways

  • R-Squared is a measure of the degree to which much variance in an dependent variable can be due to that dependent variable(s) in an regression equation.
  • In the field of investing, R-squared is typically considered to be the proportion of a fund or security’s performance that the movements of the benchmark index could explain.
  • An R-squared percentage of 100 100% means that all changes of an index (or the other dependent variables) can be fully explicable by changes in the index (or the independent variable(s) that you are most looking at).

Interpretation of R-Squared

The most commonly used understanding of r-squared is about how well the regression model can explain the data observed. For instance, an r squared of 60% means 60 percent of variance seen in the variable is defined by the model. A greater r-squared means that more variation is due to the model.

However, it’s often not the truth that higher ratio of r-squared is ideal for a regression model. The statistical quality of the measure is influenced by a variety of variables, including how the variables are used to construct the model, the measurement units used to measure the variables, and the used data transformation. Therefore, in some instances an increase in the r-squared could signal issues with the regression model.

A low r-squared value is typically a sign of poor quality for predictive models. However, in certain instances, the best models may have a low value.

There is no standard for how to use the statistical measure in the evaluation of the validity of a model. It is important to consider that the context in which you conduct your test or forecast is crucial and, depending on situations, the metric results could differ.

How do I Calculate R-Squared?

The formula used to calculate R-squared is:


  • CSS regression SS regression is the total of squares that result from regression (explained the sum of squares)
  • CSS Totalis the total of squares

While the terms “sum of squares due to regression” and “total sum of squares” might seem confusing, the definitions of the terms are clear.

A sum of squares due to regression is a measure of the extent to which the regression model accurately represents the information used to model. The sum of squares measures the variability in the data (data used to model regression).

R-Squared vs. Adjusted R-Squared

R-Squared can only function as intended in a linear regression model that has one explanation variable. When a model is a multiple one comprised of several independent variables, the R’Squared has to be adjusted.

The adjusted R-squared evaluates the power of descriptive regression models that incorporate a variety of a number of predictors. Each predictor added to the model will increase R-squared, but never reduce it. Therefore, a model that has more terms could appear to be more appropriate due to the fact that it contains more terms. However, the adjusted R-squared compensates for the increase in variables. It increases only when the new term improves the model beyond what could be predicted by chance. It decreases when a predictor makes the model in a way that is less than what is forecast by chance.

In an overfitting situation that is not properly fitted, a high amount of R-squared is derived in spite of the fact that the model has less capacity to predict. However, this is not the case when the model is adjusted to R-squared.

R-Squared in comparison to. Beta

beta and R squared are similar but distinct indicators of correlation. The beta measures the risk-to-risk ratio. A mutual fund with an R-squared of high correlation is highly correlated with an index. In the event that the beta is high, it can yield better returns than the benchmark, especially during bull markets. R-squared measures the degree to which each price change of an asset can be correlated to the benchmark.

Beta is a measure of how significant changes in price are compared to the benchmark. Together R-squared and beta offer investors a comprehensive analysis on the efficiency of investment managers. A beta of precisely 1.0 indicates there are no risks (volatility) associated with the security, which is precisely the same as the benchmark. R-squared is an analysis method that uses statistics to determine the use in practice and reliability of the betas of securities.

Squared Limitations

R-squared can provide you with an estimation of the relationship between the movement of dependent variables based on the activities of an independent variable. It does not tell you if the model you choose to use is good or not or reveal whether the predictions and data are untrue. A low or high R-square doesn’t mean that it’s either good or bad because it doesn’t demonstrate the model’s credibility or how well you’ve selected the correct regression. It’s possible to get an R-square that is low to indicate a well-fitting model or a high one for a model that isn’t well-fit and the reverse is true.